Category Archives: Iseseisvad ülesanded

NordLearn kursuse iseseisev lugmine vol 2

Ludvigsen, S., Rasmussen, I., Krange, I., Moen, A. Middleton, D. (in press). Intersecting trajectories of participation; temporality and learning. In Ludvigsen, S., Lund, A., Rasmussen, I., Säljö, R. (Eds.). Learning across sites – new tools, infrastructures and practices.

Knorr Cetina, K. (2001): Objectual Practice. In T. Schatzki, K. Knorr Cetina, E. von Savigny (Eds), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory (pp. 175-188). London: Routledge.

Author want to develop some concepts designed to capture the affective and relational undergirding of practice in areas where practice is creative and constructive. Current conceptions of practice emphasize the habitual and rule-governed features of practice. Though much debate surrounds the exact specification  of the relevant rules and habits, most authors seem to agree that practices should be seen as recurrent processes governed by specifiable schemata of preferences and prescriptions.

It is characteristic of current times that many occupations and organizations have significant knowledge base and one would expect practitioners to have to keep learning and specialists who develop the knowledge base to continually reinvent their own practice of acquiring knowledge.

knowledge society argument

Callon, Michael (2002) Writing and (re)writing devices as tools for managing complexity. In John Law; Annemarie Mol, Eds, Complexities: Social studies of knowledge practices. Duke University Press.

Management sciences. Management tools. Too little attention to the tools used by actors as they organize themselves. Without tools for collecting, constructing, processing and calculating information, agents would be unable to plan, decide or control.
The importance of the management tools becomes even more obvious as organizations and their environments evolve.
Author wants to explore the role of a category of recently developed management tools important to the service economy. He calls them writing and rewriting devices.
The discussed material was collected during two field studies made on 1995 and 1996. The first was a company that organizes cruises on the Seine and other was a company developing meal-vouchers.

Writing devices
Mentioned two firms had previously established and developed management tools intended to better define demand and develop customer loyalty, the concern was with quality.
tools:
*putting service provision into words (how the date and place of delivery of checks suggested by the customer are guaranteed etc)
*putting the customer into words (how clean were the toilets, temperature of the food etc).
*putting into words the sequence of actions making up the service (like handbook or bible, which contains all the needed information about cruise e.g, but most important – this is a process that puts actions into words without being a mere statement of what happens: writing down the sequences of elementary actions defines the content of service).

The writing device as mediation between individual and collective action.
Writing devices play a crucial role in constructing and objectifying services, their consumers and more broadly, the collective actions that make it possible to deliver services. Writing devices thus mediate between different actors on the one hand and the collective (the organization and its customers or partners) on the other.The extraordinary effectiveness of writing devices derives from the fact that they solve a theoretical question – in practice.

The work of writing:
– writing by several hands involves tough negotiations
– deleting and rewriting (handbook is written by several people)
-distributed writing – who writes and behalf on whom?

The question of the author

Who is the author? – undefined. Refers to the Foucault, who suggests: 1.  treating author as the results of a process of attribution; 2. author as a scribe, as the one who writes, who holds the pen; 3. emphasize the ownership – author may be identified on the basis of property rights; 4. beyond Foucoult – writing is a contract that binds three types of actor together: the firm, its employees and its customers.

Conclusion

Companies’ writing devices are used to interrelate a whole series of heterogeneous requirements and to make them compatible.

Writing devices lie at the heart of the organization in action and that without them organization would not exist, as it does, in a location between knowing and acting.

Eklund, A.-C., Mäkitalo, Å., Säljö, R. (in press). Noticing the past to manage the future. On the organization of shared knowing in IT-support practices. In S.Ludvigsen, A. Lund, I. Rasmussen, R. Säljö (eds.), Learning across sites: New tools, infrastructures and practices.

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Nordlearni kursuse iseseisev lugemine

Guile, D. (2009). Conceptualizing the transition from education to work as vocational practice: lessons from the UK’s creative and cultural sector. British Educational Research Journal, 35 (3) , pp. 259-270.

Article focus on statement that in the context of UK, transition from education to work should be re-thought as the development of vocational practice rather than the acquisition of qualifications. There is no use if individual collects himself some certain competences according to some standard document if he has no practical skill to implement this competence.

Author claims that the UK government, like the European Union, assumes that qualifications are a proxy measure for the development of ‘vocational practice’ (i.e. mix of knowledge, skill and judgement) and that employers can match qualification outcomes un- problematically to occupational profiles. And here author tries to argument by bringing some bottle-necks.

First, despite their rhetoric about the global economy, policymakers do not appear to understand the outcomes of the change in the ‘character’ of large swathes of work in the global economy

Second, policymakers appear to be unaware that the massification of higher education has created a new post-degree ‘vocational need’ because although studying for a degree provides a grounding for new entrants to the labour market, it rarely provides an ‘expectation or understanding of what was required in vocational contexts’.

The concept of practice and its relation to learning:

1. The traditional conception of practice and its legacy in UK qualifications

2. The quasi-natural genesis of practice: intra-community mediation, where Lave and Wenger are being presented with the learning by doing and communities of practice aspect. They conceptualize practice as a triangular-mediated relation between people, tools and context that evolves as a result of tensions between ‘old timers’ and ‘newcomers’ (i.e. legitimate peripheral participants) with the result that new forms of knowing and learning are constituted.

For this possibility to be realised, newcomers require access through a ‘learning curriculum’ to the ‘technologies of practice’ (Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 101), that is, the tools, protocols, procedures etc, that experienced members of a community use to develop the embodied forms of knowledge, skill and judgement associated with a particular practice and the requisite vocational identity and, having done so, to identify the way in which the technologies or the practices are in need of revision and work collaboratively with, or clash with, old-timers as regards the development of practice and its technologies.

Thus Billett, like Lave and Wenger, adopts an anthropological or quasi-natural perspective on learning and maintains that individuals learn as they participate in workplace practices. Where he differs from them is in making the development of personal identity more explicit and drawing attention to the continual remaking of cultural practices.

People learn as they engage with pre-given pedagogic conditions (i.e. legitimate peripheral participation) and/or perceive affordances in the environment and use collective and/or individual agentic activity to evolve practice.

3. The epistemic genesis of practice: intra-professional mediation

Knorr-Cetina makes a two-fold argument about knowledge societies and practice. First, that the transition to a knowledge society presupposes not only the presence of more experts, more technological gadgets and more specialists rather than participant interpretations, but also the existence of ‘epistemic practice’ (i.e. knowledge-generating processes). Second, that although epistemic practices have traditionally been associated with science, scientists’ knowledge-generating prac- tices, for example, the accumulation, verification and distribution of knowledge to remediate practice, are becoming a constitutive feature of other professions.

Knorr Cetina articulates a conceptualization of practice that reflects her understanding of the implications of the shift towards a knowledge-based society: practice is intentional and prospective (i.e. concerned with the here-and-now and the future) epistemically-mediated through the use of resources that are external to its context.

The epistemic genesis of practice: inter-professional mediation

In contrast to situated theorists who are concerned with meaning making and theorists in science studies such as Knorr Cetina who are concerned with the largely unknown effect of working with epistemic artifacts, Engestro ̈m (1999, 2001) writes from the perspective of activity theory. Thus, he focuses on the ‘object of activity’, that is, the mediated relation between the social purpose and organization of an activity, such as the provision of healthcare, and the individual and collective motives for engaging with, and the outcomes from, that engagement.

Professionals in modern societies and organizations (in his terms, an ‘activity system’) are, according to Engestro ̈m (2004), increasingly forced to collaborate because such systems are characterized by contradiction:

that is historically accumulating structural tensions within and between activity systems. The activity system is constantly working through tensions and contradictions within and between its elements. Contradictions manifest themselves in disturbances and innovative solutions. In this sense, an activity system is a virtual disturbance- and innovation-producing machine. (p. 150)

These contradictions emerge in activity systems as individual participants begin to question and deviate from established norms. Engestro ̈ m (2001) maintains, however, that providing members of those systems have access to forms of pedagogic support that will enable them to re-think or ‘expand’ the object of activity (p. 150), they are able, in principle, to transform an activity system.

It is difficult, if not impossible, in these circumstances to establish a boundary- crossing laboratory because work is distributed over a mix of ‘traditional’ (i.e. offices) and ‘new’ (i.e. coffee shop) sites. Nevertheless, the concept of the object of activity can be used to analyze the formulation (i.e. figuring out) and instantiation (i.e. negotiating the work process) of new artefacts and practice in this type of work context.

Reconceptualizing vocational practice

New conceptions of vocational practice

Based on the above discussion it is possible to derive a number of new conceptions of vocational practice that are analytically distinct from one another, because each one rests on a different idea about the generative basis of practice, yet related because they are predicated on an acceptance of the embodied, relational and situated character of practice.

Transition as vocational practice: issues for research and policy

In addition to providing a new language of description—evolutionary, laterally- branching and envisioning—for practice that allows us to distinguish between different expressions of creativity within, resources for, and outcomes from practice, the new conceptions also have significant implications for research into and policy for transition into the labour market.

Although the paper accepts Hager’s premise that the context of work has changed and that people can learn valuable aspects of practice in the workplace that can never be replicated in formal education, it does not abandon the notion of an occupation, occupational identity and occupationally-specific knowledge and skill. From this perspective, generic skills such as team working are not context-free skills (i.e. occupationally non-specific), rather they are rooted in accordance with the normative conventions that underpin the styles of thinking, reasoning and acting associated with a particular vocational field. Thus it follows that although academic and vocational programmes of study at any level can provide a grounding and inspiration for learners, they are unlikely to provide the conditions to develop vocational practice. This requires opportunities to work in a commercial environment with vocational communities who laterally branch out or re-envision their practice.

To enact the implications of this shift in focus, it will be necessary for policymakers to:

acknowledge the different contributions that accredited, industry-recognized and networked strands of activity make to the development of vocational practice; and

devolve for funding these strands of activity to regional stakeholders so they can design bespoke solutions for their skill needs

In conclusion, author points out that the transition from education to work should no longer be conceived as the accumulation of qualifications and, instead, should be re-thought as the develop- ment of vocational practice. Second, that re-thinking transition as the development of vocational practice presupposes the replacement of routinised with a more multi- faceted conception of vocational practice in UK educational policy. To this effect, the paper has: formulated a new language of description for vocational practice— evolutionary, laterally-branching and envisioning; argued that these new conceptions capture the different modalities of practice and the forms of working and learning required to develop them; and identified a number of strategies to support aspiring entrants to develop these different modes of vocational practice.

Author believes that the re-thinking of the relationship between vocational practice, qualifications and transition into the labour market is particularly timely. The introduction of the European Qualification Framework has resulted in educational institutions attempting to standardize qualifications throughout Europe through the use of programme specifications and learning outcomes. This development is likely to re- affirm the idea pan-Europe that qualifications constitute a proxy measure for vocational practice. This is deeply worrying because, as Richard Sennett (2008b) has most eloquently argued, the knowledge associated with any ‘craft’ (i.e. field of vocational practice) is always broader than any qualification and requires opportunities for people to ‘conduct inquiries’ and not ‘rehearse procedures’.

 

Lahn, Leif (in press): Professional learning as epistemic trajectories. In S. Ludvigsen, A. Lund, I. Rasmussen & R. Säljö (eds.), Learning across sites: New tools, infrastructures and practices.

Authors want to make a theoretical exploration into the concept “learning trajectory”, they will restrict themselves to the literature on professional learning and development where it has become more and more common to talk about  that concept.

This state of the art is understandable for several reasons. First it reflects a more common discontent in many fields of research with static notions like “competence”, “expertise”. Secondly, to speak of trajectories rather than a developmental process makes the diversity and multidimensionality of learning processes more salient. And thirdly this term points to the embeddedness of trajectories in systems that varies along temporal and spatial dimensions. Professionals are members of a range of different institutions at the same time, and these may work together to provide very distinct learning opportunities.

For our purpose it may be useful to make a rough classification of “learning trajectories” into three categories: Educational learning trajectories, informal learning trajectories and organisational learning trajectories.

The first category could also be referred to as didactic. It describes the formal stages in a school subject when these are constructed on the basis of an understanding of the students’ learning processes. The second is better known through labels like “lifetime learning trajectories”, “learning careers” and is used within adult education and life course research as terms that underlines informal and multi-linear processes of personal development. The third, that we have called “organizational learning trajectories”, is a generic term that includes both ladders in occupational careers and more horizontal moves that turn newcomers into proficient professionals.

The term “educational learning trajectories” includes two research traditions that have a legacy in cognitive psychology. The first has coined “hypothetical learning trajectories” (HLT) and is a conceptual framework and methodology for studying the steps taken by students to become proficient in a knowledge domain, for example mathematics. The second tradition is closely associated with the research on expertise and is more relevant when we are dealing with professional learning.

When using methods for mapping educational learning trajectories, one should be attentive to the framing of the target behaviour and the sampling of time and spaces. This last point reminds us that professional performance and learning events may take the shape of shorter or longer cycles. For example, when we contrast the surgical work and training episodes of medical doctors and nurses with the defence of a lawyer and the familiarization of students in legal argumentation. Clearly these situations differ in formats – in terms of “body language” on the first and formalised language in the second. In addition the expert surgeon may provide personal experiences of cases, whereas the law students often are offered a written material to work on.

Biographies and Lifetime Learning Trajectories

The term “learning trajectories” is widely circulated within the research literature on adult and lifelong learning and has been defined in a number of ways. For our purpose one could distinguish between an autobiographical and life-course-oriented approach and a historical and work-oriented approach. The former is for examplerepresented by different texts on “lifetime learning trajectories”– sometimes implying that earlier stages in life have a determining influence on later.

Community Participation as Trajectories

From the booming literature on social constructivist approaches to learning, the theoretical frameworks of Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger, John Seely Brown and others seem the most relevant ones when we study professional learning – since they take their empirical evidence from expert communities in working life. One of the main conceptual pillars in the edifice of Lave and Wenger (1991) is “legitimate peripheral participation”.

Wenger vacillates between different understandings of the term “trajectory”. In the following extract it is not clear whether he refers to subjective (individual/collective) patterns of identity formation or structural attributes of communities and work organizations: “Identities are defined with respect to the interaction of multiple convergent and divergent trajectories” (Wenger, 1998, p. 154). The later interpretation is strengthened by the many references that are made in his texts to different types of transitions within and across professional communities. Wenger introduce a series of so called “boundary crossing” devices that facilitate these movements, like structures for negotiation and brokering of knowledge and skills, foroverlapping membership and multiple commitments like in project organizations.

The three types elaborated above, the educational, the lifelong and the cultural, lean on different academic traditions. They could be compared and contrasted along some key dimensions. The first revolves around the dichotomy of “subjective” and “objective” where trajectories are constructions of the individual mind, human interactions or the cultural mind on one side and structural or systemic characteristics on the other. The second source of variation is the different time scales that are used withinthe research traditions that we have reviewed. A trajectory ranges from students’ performance on school tasks to life course transitions or cultural typifications of collective experiences. A third dimension that is related to both analytical levels and spatio-temporal scaling is content. Do trajectories refer to cycles of individual problem solving, learning processes, paths of participation, cultural / institutional patterns? As pointed out several times above, it is far from clear what is learned – and thus what is put on a trajectory. In both the life history and the community approach the concept of learning is quite open – or diluted.

Artikkel nr 3

Billett, S., Smith, R., & Barker, M. (2005). Understanding work, learning and the remaking of cultural practices. Studies in Continuing Education, 27(3), pp. 219-237.

Understanding how both learning and remaking of the cultural practices that comprise work occurs in workplaces has important practical and conceptual purposes. Practically, at a time when the requirements for work are in constant change and turmoil, there is a need to understand how individuals can best learn these changing requirements through work and throughout their working life. It seems reasonable to propose that the most likely and accessible environment to assist this learning will be workplaces themselves. The possibilities and capacities of providing effective and ongoing skill development in vocational education systems or universities can only be partial, at best. The evidence suggests that workplaces can be generative of much of the knowledge required for work performance. However, they also have significant limitations in terms of the distribution of opportunities for learning, the prospects of securing effective learning experiences and the issue of recognition of that learning.

Teadusmetodoloogia – uurimisplaan

Teooria

Eesmärk

The aim of my doctoral thesis is to develop the framework for learning and knowledge building activities with the technological solution in the cross-border communities which would support teachers’ professional development. The technical environment consists of personal e-portfolio, learning resources repository.

Research questions:

1. How the learning and knowledge building in portfolio-based personal learning environment influences the development of self-directive learning competencies and therefore supports the professional development?

2. How can teachers with their portfolios influence the teaching in universities by bringing in the new knowledge which has been created through practical activities in schools?

3. How the portfolio-based learning environment enables the support of the cross-border knowledge building from the individual or organizational aspects therefore influencing the development of learning organizations and  which methods are the most suitable for the harmonization of the teachers’ individual goals with the  ones of organization.

4. Which methods and strategies are the most effective for the implementation of the teacher training knowledge building scenarios in the Estonian context?

Instrument and data analysis

The semi-structured and focus group interviews will be used as instruments. Interviews will be done repeatedly with different target groups. Interviews will take place in face-to-face meetings, they will be taped and transcribed word-to-word. Additional instrument will be teachers’ written reflections in their portfolio blogs.

Results

As the result of the doctoral thesis, I will provide framework and knowledge building SECI model in teacher training context for dynamically changing organization, which would support the harmonization of the goals of organizations and therefore influences teacher’s cross-border knowledge building between different learning and working communities.


Iseseisev ülesanne – teadusmetodoloogia

Artikli analüüs, esitada 21. oktoober 2009

Participatory design: The third space in HCI, M. J. Muller

Michael J Muller on teadlane, kelle peamised uurimissuunad on sotsiaalne tarkvara (nii kvantitatiivsed kui ka kvalitatiivsed uurimused), sotsiaalse tarkvara edukuse mõõtmine, praktika kogukonnad, osalusdisain ning analüüsi-, disaini- ja hindamismeetodid. Tema viimaste aastate artiklid on lisaks osalusdisainile keskendunud palju sotsiaalsele tarkvarale ning sotsiaalsele võrgutamisele (social networking).

Artikkel uurib osalusdisaini meetodeid, tehnikaid ning rakendusvõimalusi hübriidses keskkonnas, ehk keskkonnas, mis pole ei arendajate ega lõppkasutajate oma, vaid asub nende kahe keskkonna vahel.

Osalusdisain on teooriate kogum, praktikad ning uurimused, mis on seotud lõppkasutajate kui osalejate osalemisega tarkvara (aga ka riistvara) arendamises. Osalusdisain hõlmab erakordselt mitmesuguseid valdkondasid nagu kasutaja-keskne disain, graafiline disain, tarkvara-arendus, arhitektuur, avalik haldus, psühholoogia, sotsioloogia, kommunikatsioon ja poliitikateadused.

Artikli struktuur:

Kirjanduse ülevaade (HCI hübriidne keskkond, osalusdisaini hübriidne keskkond)

Arutlus

Tulemused

Kirjanduse ülevaade

Tabel 1 pakub ülevaate erinevate autorite poolt pakutud väited seoses hübriidse keskkonnaga (uute ideede süntees, rohkem rõhku kollaboratsioonil ja vähem individualismil jms).

Muller 2002

Arutelu

Seejärel pakub Muller välja üheksa trendi osalusdisainis:

– ühistöö läbiviimise koha valik

– töötoad

– jutud

– lõppkasutajate fotograafia

– draamad e loo jutustamine video või etenduse abil

– mängud

– jagatud keele loomine

– kirjeldavad artefaktid, vähest tehnoloogiat sisaldavad prototüübid

– töötavad prototüübid

Muller uuris, kuidas mainitud üheksa kategooriat on seotud hübriidsusega ning millised on ühe või teise eelised.

Uurimus viidi läbi erinevate autorite poolt erinevate sihtrühmade seas läbi (muuhulgas nt telefoni operaatorite seas). Üheksa kategooriat rakendati erinevate seltskondade peal erinevate autorite poolt ning Muller koostas nö ülevaate nendest. Lisaks sellele vaadeldakse kategooriaid ka hübriidse keskkonna aspektist.

Näiteks Ühistöö koha läbiviimise valik

Osalusdisaini on võimalik läbi viia kas a) uuritavate töökeskkonnas b) arenduskeskkonnas. Muller jt proovisid seda mõlemal juhul. Uuritavate tööpaiga eelis oli kohapealne tehnoloogia olemasolu, millega demonstreerida või eksperimenteerida, mistõttu tekkis tugev side praktiliste tegevustega. Arenduskeskkonnas toimunud kohtumised muutusid pigem innovaatliste ideede kogumiskohaks. Märkamatult kaks erinevat paika kaasasid ka erinevaid osalejaid uuringusse. Tööpaigal liitusid kohtumistega töö spetsiifikaga seotud liikmed nagu koolitajad või eksperdid. Samas arenduskeskkonnas liitusid tehnilised arendajad või hoopis üliõpilased, kes aitasid hiljem andmeid analüüsida.

Hübriidsest keskkonnast lähtuvalt näiteks töötoa kategooria puhul: Töötube (workshops) peetakse tavaliselt neutraalsel pinnal erinevate osapoolte (stakeholders) vahel, et paika panna eesmärgid, strateegiad ja lõpptulemused. Seega kõigil osapooltel on mitte-eeliseks väljaspool oma tuttavat keskkonda, kus nad peavad koostööd tegema ühise tulemuse nimel. Erinevate osapoolte hääled moodustavad aga teadmiste ja perspektiivide sünergia.

Üheksa kategooria analüüs moodustab artikli arutelu, et kuidas need kategooriad praktikas panustavad hübriidse keskkonna loomisele ja millised on ühe või teise eelised .

Tulemused

Tulemuseks pakub Muller välja ülevaate tabelis nr 2, kus ühel pool jooksevad väited seoses hübriidse keskkonnaga, mis pakuti välja tabelis 1 ja teistpidi üheksa kategooriat ning kaardistab ära hübriidsuse mustrid erinevate meetodite, tehnikate ja praktikate puhul.

tabel2

Lõpuks lisab Muller loetelu osalusdisaini lahendamata probleemidest. Näiteks puudu on tõsiselt võetavast kirjandusest osalusdisaini rakendamisest koos formatiivse hindamisega. Teiseks, osalusdisaini on rakendatud palju hands-on tegevustega või vähemalt tegevustega, mis eeldab visuaalseid võimeid, see aga jätab kõrvale puuetega inimesed, kes seetõttu osalusdisainist osa võtta ei saa.

Artikkel andis suurepärase ülevaate, kuidas erinevates praktikumides osalusdisani kasutada. Ja mitte ainult, ta kirjeldas ka kenasti hübriidse keskkonna teket kogukondade vahel. Kuna minu doktoritöö keskendub ühelt poolt osalusdisainile ja teiselt poolt piiriülesele individuaalsele aga ka kogukondlikule teadmusloomele, siis ilmselt paremini sobivat artiklit oleks olnud mu valikust raskem leida.

Artikkel polnud tavapärase ülesehitusega, et sissejuhatus, kirjanduse ülevaade, metoodika, arutelu ja tulemused, selles mõttes, et autor oli kokku kogunud teiste autorite töödest paremini osalusdisaini kirjeldavad praktikad ja projektid. Ühelt poolt oleks olnud huvitav lugeda, kuidas kõiki üheksat kategooriat rakendada ühes uurimuses, samas selline lähenemine muutiski ülevaate osalusdisainist mitmekesisemaks ja terviklikumaks.