Ludvigsen, S., Rasmussen, I., Krange, I., Moen, A. Middleton, D. (in press). Intersecting trajectories of participation; temporality and learning. In Ludvigsen, S., Lund, A., Rasmussen, I., Säljö, R. (Eds.). Learning across sites – new tools, infrastructures and practices.
Knorr Cetina, K. (2001): Objectual Practice. In T. Schatzki, K. Knorr Cetina, E. von Savigny (Eds), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory (pp. 175-188). London: Routledge.
Author want to develop some concepts designed to capture the affective and relational undergirding of practice in areas where practice is creative and constructive. Current conceptions of practice emphasize the habitual and rule-governed features of practice. Though much debate surrounds the exact specification of the relevant rules and habits, most authors seem to agree that practices should be seen as recurrent processes governed by specifiable schemata of preferences and prescriptions.
It is characteristic of current times that many occupations and organizations have significant knowledge base and one would expect practitioners to have to keep learning and specialists who develop the knowledge base to continually reinvent their own practice of acquiring knowledge.
knowledge society argument
Callon, Michael (2002) Writing and (re)writing devices as tools for managing complexity. In John Law; Annemarie Mol, Eds, Complexities: Social studies of knowledge practices. Duke University Press.
Management sciences. Management tools. Too little attention to the tools used by actors as they organize themselves. Without tools for collecting, constructing, processing and calculating information, agents would be unable to plan, decide or control.
The importance of the management tools becomes even more obvious as organizations and their environments evolve.
Author wants to explore the role of a category of recently developed management tools important to the service economy. He calls them writing and rewriting devices.
The discussed material was collected during two field studies made on 1995 and 1996. The first was a company that organizes cruises on the Seine and other was a company developing meal-vouchers.
Mentioned two firms had previously established and developed management tools intended to better define demand and develop customer loyalty, the concern was with quality.
*putting service provision into words (how the date and place of delivery of checks suggested by the customer are guaranteed etc)
*putting the customer into words (how clean were the toilets, temperature of the food etc).
*putting into words the sequence of actions making up the service (like handbook or bible, which contains all the needed information about cruise e.g, but most important – this is a process that puts actions into words without being a mere statement of what happens: writing down the sequences of elementary actions defines the content of service).
The writing device as mediation between individual and collective action.
Writing devices play a crucial role in constructing and objectifying services, their consumers and more broadly, the collective actions that make it possible to deliver services. Writing devices thus mediate between different actors on the one hand and the collective (the organization and its customers or partners) on the other.The extraordinary effectiveness of writing devices derives from the fact that they solve a theoretical question – in practice.
The work of writing:
– writing by several hands involves tough negotiations
– deleting and rewriting (handbook is written by several people)
-distributed writing – who writes and behalf on whom?
The question of the author
Who is the author? – undefined. Refers to the Foucault, who suggests: 1. treating author as the results of a process of attribution; 2. author as a scribe, as the one who writes, who holds the pen; 3. emphasize the ownership – author may be identified on the basis of property rights; 4. beyond Foucoult – writing is a contract that binds three types of actor together: the firm, its employees and its customers.
Companies’ writing devices are used to interrelate a whole series of heterogeneous requirements and to make them compatible.
Writing devices lie at the heart of the organization in action and that without them organization would not exist, as it does, in a location between knowing and acting.
Eklund, A.-C., Mäkitalo, Å., Säljö, R. (in press). Noticing the past to manage the future. On the organization of shared knowing in IT-support practices. In S.Ludvigsen, A. Lund, I. Rasmussen, R. Säljö (eds.), Learning across sites: New tools, infrastructures and practices.